Established, since 1997, leading UK based training provider.
Celebrating 25 years in business! CPD Member - The CPD Certification Service ilm Recognised Provider

Tuckman's Five Stages of Team Development

Tuckman's Five Stages of Team Development

Tuckman's Five Stages of Team Development

In 1965 Bruce Tuckman presented his description of the four stages of team development and called them 'Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing'. In the 1970s he added a fifth stage which he called 'Adjourning'.

Teamwork : Tuckman's Five Stages of Team Development


This stage denotes a group of people when they first come together to form a team.

They don't know each other, they don't know what the plan is, nor the standards which are expected of them. Team performance is at its lowest point.


This stage denotes the creation of social hierarchies, where the various personalities jostle with each other to determine their positions in the hierarchy of the group. This is a period of conflict as dominant personalities clash, and submissive personalities submit.

As the social hierarchy takes shape the work begins to flow and the productivity of the team improves.


This stage denotes the habitualisation of the social structures as people begin to settle down. Each person "knows their place" and what is expected of them. The productivity of the team improves still further.


This stage denotes the peak performance of the group, where everyone is in their "right place" and each person is perfecting their performance in their particular role, causing the productivity of the team as a whole to reach its zenith.


This stage denotes when the teams project is ended, and the team disbands, either temporarily or permanently. This marks the end of the team, and team performance ceases to exist.

Is the Tuckman's team model of value?

The model is of some value if leaders want to know what to expect.

It is not much value if leaders want to know exactly what to do and say in order to get the best performance from the team, at any stage of the process.

Descriptive verses Prescriptive theories.

Theories come in two main types, Descriptive and Prescriptive.

  • Descriptive theories describe what happens.
  • Prescriptive theories prescribe what actions we should take, in order to get the best results.

Most people need to know what to do and say, in order to get the best results, so most people need to learn prescriptive models.

Tuckman's model is descriptive, (not prescriptive), it does NOT give definite leadership responses to the five stages.

Consequently, we can categorise the Tuckman's Model as being "Interesting, but of a limited practical value".

Leaders need to learn exactly what to do and say

To get the best results, leaders need to learn exactly what to do and say. For this reason, there are better leadership models than Tuckman.

If you want to learn exactly what leaders should do and say, in order to get the best performance from the team, then please attend our Leadership and Management training course.

About the Author: Chris Farmer


Chris Farmer is the founder of the Corporate Coach Group and has many years’ experience in training leaders and managers, in both the public and private sectors, to achieve their organisational goals, especially during tough economic times. He is also well aware of the disciplines and problems associated with running a business.

Over the years, Chris has designed and delivered thousands of training programmes and has coached and motivated many management teams, groups and individuals. His training programmes are both structured and clear, designed to help delegates organise their thinking and, wherever necessary, to improve their techniques and skills.

Blogs by Email

Do you want to receive an email whenever we post a new blog? The blogs contain article 5-10 minutes long - ideal for reading during your coffee break!

Further Reading in Teamwork

  • How can I get the team to work together?
    Do your team members sometimes fight amongst themselves, and tend to work against each other; rather than with each other? If so, what can you do about it?
    Read Article >
  • Building Better Work Relationships
    The better your relationships with other people, the more likely you will be able to work together, to achieve your common goals. Ten tips to apply in order to improve your work relationships.
    Read Article >
  • How can I improve team performance?
    How to improve team performance The future of your organisation depends upon the performance of the team. If the team performance is good, then your future will go well. If your team performance is no-good, then your future will be hell. Your organisation is made up of individuals. Those individuals come...
    Read Article >
  • The use and abuse of humour at work
    At work, it can be good to have a laugh. However, it is better to NOT clown around.
    Read Article >
  • Building effective teams
    Building an effective team An effective team is a valuable asset An effective team has the ability to pool its mental, intellectual, emotional and material resources in such a way, that the performance of the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, meaning: that if the members work together...
    Read Article >

Looking for People Management Skills Training?

If you're looking to develop your Teamwork Skills, you may find this People Management Skills Training Course beneficial:

Open Training Course Pricing and Availability

23 - 24 April
Online - Teams
£900 +VAT
29 - 30 April
London - Central
£900 +VAT
8 - 9 May
£900 +VAT
8 - 9 May
£900 +VAT
Course Full
More dates and locations available
Save £100 on this course

Next Open Course Running tomorrow in Online - Teams, places available Book Now >